1.Testicular Sperm Aspiration
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) is a procedure in which a sample of sperm cells is taken directly from the testicular tissue of a man’s reproductive system. The sperm is separated from the tissue and looked at under a microscope in the laboratory. The sperms can then be used right away or frozen for future infertility treatment in conjunction with Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to form an embryo.
There are two types of TESA depending on the indications for the procedure.
Performed under general anesthesia, percutaneous testicular sperm retrieval uses a biopsy needle to extract a small amount of testicular tissue. The tissue is scanned by an embryologist to locate sperm which can then be used in ICSI to fertilize a partner’s egg.
In conditions such as testicular atrophy, or even post-chemotherapy/radiation, the testes do not produce adequate amounts of sperm. Using a microscope, a search is performed for testicular tubules that appear more developed and contain mature sperm. This procedure offers the most severe cases of male infertility the best chance of identifying sperm and proceeding with ICSI.
What are the Goals of TESA?
The goals of the testicular sperm aspiration procedure are to obtain the best quality sperm, get enough sperm to fertilize an egg from a woman, and to minimize damage to the reproductive organs.
Possible risks of the testicular sperm aspiration procedure include bleeding, infection, and pain or discomfort after the procedure. There is a very rare chance that the testicle itself will be damaged during the procedure.
What are the indications for TESA?
There are many reasons why a TESA may need to be performed, but all involve an inability to produce an ejaculate with sperm sufficient for fertilization.
Testicular sperm aspiration may be useful for men who have fertility problems caused by a blockage that keeps sperm from being ejaculated. This could be caused by previous vasectomy, certain genetic conditions, ejaculation problems, infection, or other conditions.
TESA may be recommended for men who have had a vasectomy but now wish to father a child. TESA allows the man to maintain his vasectomy for future contraception.