Sometimes, the endometrial tissue travels out the end of the fallopian tube and into the abdomen. In some women, the tissue will attach to other organs. The hormones made in the next menstrual cycle stimulate this extra tissue to grow and later shed just like the tissue in the uterus.
However, this bleeding and tissue shedding has no way to exit the body, which causes inflammation and irritation of local tissue. Usually, the inflammation causes the pain that patients often experience with endometriosis.
Common symptoms of endometriosis include discomfort before and during menses, painful intercourse, infertility, pain or other abnormalities with urination or bowel movements around the time of menses break through bleeding between menses, and fatigue, as many as 15 to 20 percent of women with endometriosis will present with no symptoms.
Some women with this condition may also have other immune disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS ) and fibromyalgia.
Unless the endometriosis has formed a cyst on the ovary called an endometrioma, which can be seen with a sonogram, your doctor can only make the diagnosis with laparoscopy.